Life cycle of incomplete metamorphosis, the female produces eggs in a case (ootheca) containing 12 – 50 eggs. These egg cases are very tough in being almost resistant to desiccation and the ingress of insecticide. From the egg hatches a first stage nymph (a miniature wingless version of the adult). Cockroaches pass through a number of nymphal stages during their life cycle, some 5 – 12 depending on their species, before a final move to the adult stage.
Habitually they are nocturnal and feed on many substances. Moisture is important to them, they will not live more than a few weeks without it, although several months without food.
The two types of cockroach that are found regularly in this country are the oriental cockroach and the German cockroach.
Control measures involve dusts and liquid solutions to all harbourages usually at night, all cracks and crevices should be covered.
An entire industry centres around the control of rodents, the rat is the one pest people fear most, often for the wrong reasons. The right reason is that they are diseased and carry all manner of germs. Weils disease still proving fatal to some individuals. One in two rats carries this. The wrong reasons being fear of attack; rats do not leap at people’s throats, or meeting giant rats which do not exist either. Although most people will talk of seeing
rats ‘as large as cats’ this is clearly ridiculous; an adult rat weighs some 100 – 500 grams, a lot less than a cat. Neither do ‘hundreds’ of rats regularly congregate together.
Young rats are born pink, naked and helpless, averaging eight per litter. Within a couple of weeks can focus and move about, at some three weeks of age they are about the size of a mouse. At 5 weeks they have the grey coat of childhood and grow the mature colour of brown, they are fully mature at three months. The pregnancy lasts twenty one – twenty four days, from sexual maturity until death, a period of about a year; the female is pregnant virtually constantly.
Virtually all sensible pest control relating to rodents involves the use of poisons. There are many forms and many methods at the disposal of the trained pest controller. Successful rodent control is about being methodical and seeing the job through to its end. There is no great mystery about it.
The adult house mouse weighs about 30 grams. Females have their first litter at about two months of age and may have up to six litters in total; litter sizes range from two to thirteen, averaging six. Mice also have a life expectancy of about one year. Mice range over a very small area. Mice, unlike rats, do not need to drink. They are mainly grain feeders, their habit of taking a little here and there causes widespread damage.
For the purposes of pest control mice are only considered worthy of attention when indoors; unlike rats which should be controlled wherever they are found.
Mice have the ability to enter via very small access points. Most infestation includes them being found in the roof void of a property.
There are many poisons available to control mice effectively. The habit of live trapping them and then releasing them by the householder is usually pointless.
The bedbug is a temporary ecto parasite of humans. When it is not feeding on our blood it hides in cracks, crevices and other harbourages in human habitation.
Their life cycle is one of incomplete metamorphosis, after mating the female lays two or three eggs every day for the rest of her life, (her life span may be several weeks or even months). Eggs hatch in about 10 days at average room temperatures, more quickly at higher temperatures, yet not for several weeks at lower temperatures.
Bedbugs have five nymphal stages each are involving a bloodmeal, the phase lasts some six weeks, but may be longer in adverse conditions.
Bedbugs are very resistant to starvation; their faeces are often found as semi digested blood. Sometimes old nymphal skins are also found.
A thorough treatment plan involving appropriate residual insecticide is used to treat these insects over several visits.